Clinical Lectures

4LeafMedical’s Clinical Lectures focus on the key elements of identifying and managing disease in a clinical context. The focus is on developing skills necessary to identify a disease based on information gathered from the history and physical examination, labs, imaging, and pathology; developing an appropriate differential diagnosis; and formulating an appropriate management plan.

By developing these skills you will be able to approach the USMLE’s second-order questions with a true understanding of clinical situations to accurately come to a conclusion on which disease you are being tested on so that you may correctly answer the associated question.

What are ‘second-order’ questions?

Second-order questions may have an intermediary step, such as finding out the underlying pathology before applying this information in an additional step. Second-order questions require you to figure out what the diagnosis is and then answer the question.

Rheumatologic, Immunologic, and Allergic Disorders

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Rheumatologic Disorders

Rheumatologic, immunologic, and allergic disorders can be divided into 8 different groups: (1) Degenerative and Crystal-Induced Arthritises, (2) Autoimmune Diseases, (3) Vasculitic Syndromes, (4) Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies, (5) Infectious Arthritises, (6) Tuberculosis of Bones and Joints, (7) Allergic and Immunologic Disorders, and (8) Miscellaneous Rheumatologic Disorders.

Section 1: Degenerative and Crystal-Induced Arthritises

+ Degenerative Joint Disease (Osteoarthritis)
+ Crystal Deposition Arthritis

Section 2: Autoimmune Diseases

+ Rheumatoid Arthritis
+ Adult Still Disease
+ Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
+ Drug-Induced Lupus
+ Antiphospholipid Syndrome
+ Raynaud Phenomenon
+ Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)
+ Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Myopathies
+ Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, Overlap, and Undifferentiated Syndromes
+ Sjogren Syndrome
+ IgG4-Related Disease

Section 3: Vasculitic Syndromes

– Vasculitic Syndromes
+ Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis
+ Takayasu Arteritis
+ Polyarteritis Nodosa
+ Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
+ Microscopic Polyangiitis
+ Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
+ Levamisole-Associated Purpura
+ Cryoglobulinemia
+ IgA Vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein Purpura)
+ Relapsing Polychondritis
+ Behcet Disease
+ Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System
+ Livedo Reticularis and Livedo Racemosa

Section 4: Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies

+ Axial Spondyloarthritis (Ankylosing Spondylitis)
+ Psoriatic Arthritis
+ Reactive Arthritis
+ Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated Spondyloarthritis

Section 5: Infectious Arthritis

+ Nongonococcal Acute Bacterial (Septic) Arthritis
+ Gonococcal Arthritis
+ Rheumatic Manifestations of HIV Infection
+ Viral Arthritis

Section 6: Tuberculosis of Bones and Joints

+ Spinal Tuberculosis (Pott Disease)
+ Tuberculous Arthritis

Section 7: Allergic and Immunologic Disorders

+ Immediate Hypersensitivity
+ Adverse Drug Reactions
+ Delayed Drug Hypersensitivity
+ Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders In Adults

Section 8: Miscellaneous Rheumatologic Disorders

+ Fibromyalgia
+ Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
+ Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
+ Rheumatologic Manifestations of Cancer
+ Neurogenic Arthropathy (Charcot Joint)
+ Palindromic Rheumatism
+ Osteonecrosis (Avascular Necrosis of Bone)